Do you think the concept of rationality/irrationality is useful in our understanding of Collective Behavior?

Your midterm exam for the course will be an untimed “Take Home” exam which focuses on the prominent theories we have examined up to this point, along with their potential strengths, limitations, and problems. Specific occurrences mentioned either in the lectures or assignments may also be discussed, but they will serve as examples to reference. Since this is an “open book” exam, you will be graded based upon your understanding of the material. This includes: 1) following the logic of each of theories we’ve explored; 2) linking empirical examples to concepts; and 3) critically evaluating certain theories/ideas along with their assumptions. You will not be graded on your grammar or spelling, unless I am unable to understand whatever it is you are trying to say. You are allowed to use outside sources only for information regarding specific events and occurrences, but you are not required to do so. Otherwise, you should rely upon the readings supplied in the course and the lectures. Please remember to cite your sources, preferably in ASA format.Please select and respond to 3 (three) of the questions listed below. If you respond to more than three, your grade will be based upon the first three answers provided. Be sure to indicate which question you are responding to in your response. Note: this does not include the bonus question.The foundations of research in collective behavior (or crowd psychology/ mass psychology) are based within a broadly construed theoretical framework referred to as Contagion Theory. While there have been different manifestations (cf. Le Bon, Park, Blumer) of this approach spanning decades, many of the principles are the same. Despite this, the assumptions of Contagion Theory (spreading madness, loss of self, irrationality) has been largely dismissed as empirically inaccurate. Even amongst ourselves, we cannot recall events which led us to behave in ways such as this, even though we have assumed that others have experienced it. What are the primary characteristics of these Contagion Theories and why do you think they were so popular and widely accepted in the Western World? (Hint: keep in mind the types of events that were focused upon, and where “evidence” of these events derived; this includes events like the Dancing Plague of 1518 and Dutch Tulipomania, as well as race and class-based protests/riots)What role does Rationality/Irrationality play in each of the theories of Collective Behavior examined so far? Be sure to examine the Contagion Theories, Emergent Norm Theory, Value-Added Theory, and Socio-Cybernetic Model. Do you think the concept of rationality/irrationality is useful in our understanding of Collective Behavior? Why or why not?What distinctions, if any, exist between Collective Behavior, Group Behavior, and Crowd Behavior? Provide examples of each, and explain why you think they differ from one another. In your response, be sure to examine the Emergent Norm Theory, Value-Added Theory, and the Socio-Cybernetic Model. Examples may include those discussed in the course, but can also be supplied on your own. Be sure to provide proper reference material for events not discussed in the course.While not addressed directly in the course per se, the issue of violence is often at the forefront of research and theories of collective action and may prove to be an important demarcation point between types of collective behavior (i.e. violent and non-violent). Examine each of the theories explored in the course so far (Contagion, Emergent Norm, Value-Added, and Socio-Cybernetic) with an eye towards violent vs. non-violent collective action, then answer the following: Given some of the limitations of theories of collective behavior and their ostensibly broad scope of action (fads to economic bubbles to riots), does limiting their explanatory focus to violent collective behavior (such as riots) improve or diminish their explanatory power, and why? (In other words, if each theorist only studied violent collective events as opposed to all collective events, would their theories be more or less compelling/accurate?)Bonus Question (Up to 10 Points)What are some of the major methodological problems that arise when collecting data on Collective Behavior, and why?