Part 1How did behaviorism become such a dominant theoretical basis for education and training in the United States?What do you think is changing in the way people think about others and their learning?Why do you think that there seems to be so many lecture courses in schools and in training? Is this good or bad?How might consideration of theories in the instructional design process affect such courses?Do you think that a tendency to use a behavioral approach in learning and teaching might have something to do with an instructor’s desire to keep control over the classroom and the learning pace and activity? Why or why not?How do behaviorists make the logical transition in their thinking from experiments on pigeons, rats, dogs, and apes to conclusions about human learning?Illustrate your discussions with examples.Part 2The scientific or positivist philosophy of education argues that knowledge can be discovered and constructed scientifically. Positivists assume that people can discover the truth about the world and that everyone needs to work toward knowledge of the same, ultimate truth, regardless of the topic or field of study. Discuss the following:In what ways does behaviorist theory support this philosophy?Part 3What can cause instability and dissonance in human behavior?How do disturbances in equilibrium generate opportunities for learning?How do you reconcile the idea that constructivism results in a subjective reality when most teachers and trainers are charged with delivery of fixed, prescribed information and ideas?Can both approaches be accomplished in a class?How might you use constructivism in designing a general science class for eighth graders? Why? How?Part 4Do you think that designers and teachers should generate discomfort in young students, encouraging the process that Piaget called equilibration?How do instructional designers and teachers incorporate methods in courses that promote equilibration?How do instructors and designers help young students achieve accommodation?How do you think that this idea relates to adult learning theory, as stated by Malcolm Knowles in the principles of andragogy?How do the theoretical similarities play out in considering the design of instruction for adults?Are both theories related to constructivism? Why or why notPart 5What does education literature offer as some of the key factors that usually serve as motivation for adult learners to return to school?What should the balance be between self-motivation and external motivation in online education?What does the literature say about these internal and external motivations in online learning?How important is cognitive load theory when considering learner motivation, whether childhood learners or adults?Part 6You are preparing to teach a 14-week course in business writing at the local penitentiary. How might you incorporate the principles of self-regulation into your instruction and into your assessment and evaluation of participants?How do you relate the theory of self-efficacy to self-regulation and self-motivation in high school educational settings?How might you have to take self-efficacy and self-perception into account if you are designing a classroom course for learners who will be in a mixed class of factory assembly workers, supervisors, and midlevel managers?What obstacles can you see in trying to help eighth-graders learn the use of self-reflection in their learning processes?