Identify two contrasting ethical theories.

Ethics and Testing of Medicines Case. Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products. Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways.Using this Identify two contrasting ethical theories. Critically analyse how these two theories could be used to argue the case both for and against testing of medicines on animals. You should ensure that you use a range of relevant sources to support your work, including at least two peer-reviewed journal articles.Question 2 – CSR Theories and Amazon Case StudyAmazon is a successful global online company that sells a huge range of goods. However it has been criticised for avoiding paying taxes on a worldwide scale. In Europe it uses a company base in Luxembourg to reduce the amount of tax paid in other European countries and in the US it uses loopholes around having a physical presence in certain states to avoid paying tax there. In 2013 it was reported that in the UK, Amazon paid £2.4m in tax on a total bill of £3.2m for 2012, but received £2.5m in government grants. This was on a reported sales figure of £4.2billion and a turnover of £230m. Amazon’s boss would argue that they are following the legal rules and have therefore done nothing wrong. In 2015 their sales were £5.3billion, with a profit of £34.4m and paid tax of £11.9m. Additionally there have been recent accusations against Amazon regarding their treatment of staff and their employment practices; they have been accused of over-packaging, which is a wider environmental issue; they have been accused of treating some of their suppliers poorly (see weblinks below for further details).Using this case, identify two theories/models of CSR. Then analyse the level of CSR development that is evidenced bya) Amazon’s policies and statements about ethical and CSR issues andb) Amazon’s activities in regard to paying tax and other business practices such as employment practices, treatment of suppliers and so on.You should use the websites listed below, a range of text books and at least two peer-reviewed journal articles to support your analysis.Sources for CSR information for Amazon Articles on Tax Avoidance used above: 3 – Stakeholder Issues in The Red Cross and Red Crescent Case StudyThe Red Cross and the Red Crescent organisations provide humanitarian support to people in vulnerable situations due to war and natural disasters. The organisations also help in providing support to lonely people in European countries not subject to the more publicised stresses from war or natural disaster.You should begin by reading thoroughly the material presented at the websites and Red Cross and Red Crescent organisations operate with respect for a number of unchanging principles. These principles are· Humanity· Impartiality· Neutrality· Independence· Voluntary Service· Unity· UniversalityConsider how these principles might work or fail to work in practice. To help you, consider the two developments below:-1. At a national level, the Finnish Red Cross has been appealing for student volunteers to come forward to help reduce the social isolation of lonely and disadvantaged people. Whilst this is a good intention, it raises the question of the connection between government and voluntary agencies. This role and these activities were previously administered by government using national taxation which is now being taken on by the voluntary sector. We should consider the implications of this change.2. You can see within the Red Cross website that the John Lewis partnership, a large retailing group in the UK and the insurance company Aviva have joined the Disaster Relief Alliance. This raises a question regarding the role of the private sector in this area and whether there are any moral conflicts present here.Using this example, identify a range of internal and external stakeholders involved in the organisation and use a stakeholder map to plot their relative importance. Justify your decisions using relevant theory. Evaluate the different expectations four key stakeholders might have in relation to CSR practices, using the information provided in the case study above.