punishment has always included elements of dicipline and reform. Critically discuss, with reference to theory, how these two components have competed but never replaced one another since the 18th century.

some useful sources:
Hutchinson, S. (2006)\”Countering catastrophic criminology: Reform, punishment and the modern liberal compromise\’, Punishment& Society, 8(4):443-467

Tierney, J.(2006) Criminology: Therory and Context(2nd Ed.), Essex: Pearson Education

Tierney,J. and O\’Neil, M.(2009) Criminology: Theory and Context(3rd Ed.), Essex: Pearson Education