This is an individual assessment. Students are expected to select a topic
connected to their research interests that will eventually be part of the Dissertation.
Working within the scope of your research interests, choose 3 peer reviewed journal articles from online-databases or library on the selected topic. The first being a conceptual paper (theory), the second being an empirical study/qualitative work (findings) with interpretations and the third being a policy/pragmatic paper(application)dealing with strategies or applications. To get a better idea of what these three types of journal articles focus on, refer to the Appendix. It contains excerpts taken from three different journal articles that correspond to: conceptual, empirical/qualitative, policy/pragmatic.
Read the 3 articles, critically review the literature dividing your focus as follows:
O 1st paper on theory: comment on the theoretical/conceptual framework given current developments in your field of interests
O 2nd paper on findings: highlight results (empirical/qualitative discussions) that confirm or contradict existing notions
O 3rd paper on application: discuss the challenges to be addressed if the suggested application is used in your own research context
The typewritten critical review should contain a proper cover page (indicate students name, ID, topic), an introduction, main content and conclusion. The critical review should be formatted for 1,000 1,200 words, 12 point font size, double spaced, as per the format adopted in MS Word.
B. Submission Requirements
How to integrate the three articles into a single review:
O Select three articles on a common theme and topic matter and ensure that they relate specifically to: hospitality, tourism or the culinary arts/science. Avoid generic articles.(Use the tools you have learnt in the library workshop)
O Introduction must briefly describe the topic, define problems/gaps in knowledge, and explain why the topic is important/originality/value of the topic (the 1st paper, sometimes the 3rdpaper)
O The literature review:
Definitions and relationships between key concepts must be clear in the review (the 1st paper).
Critique results in terms of their explanation or insights (the 2nd paper)
The conclusion must lead to application(s)and not individual summaries of each paper(mainly on the 3rdpaper).References must be formatted according to the APA style and arranged in alphabetical order. The APA Citations and Referencing Style must be used in the review. As a way to standardize the process, you are advised to use MS Words References menu and the function, citations and bibliography. (Use the tools you have learnt in the library workshop)
C. Review Outline and Mark Allocations As a guide on the amount of effort needed for each part of the review consult the following mark break down
(Marked upon 50% and scaled down to 20%)
Format of the Review
1. Introduction (7.5marks)
2. Literature Review (15marks)
3. Conclusion/Summary (20 marks)
References (7.5 marks)
The following ad verbatim excerpts provide a feel of what theory, findings and application articles are like in their focus and purpose.
Taken from a theory article:
Precisely what different researchers mean when they use the term hospitality is rarely defined or explained in either a clear or an acceptable way. Indeed its common usage by this research community is a relatively recent phenomenon, and one which most seem to have drifted into from the prior focus of hotel and catering in the UK or lodging and foodservice in the USA. It is also rarely clear where the boundaries of hospitality are drawn in relation to “near neighbours\’\’ such as tourism and leisure (Brotherton, 1989), or the structural and behavioural characteristics of other service industries such as retailing, financial services etc., and whether hospitality should be conceived as a product, a process, an experience, or all three!
(Brotherton, 1999, pg. 165)
Taken from a findings article (quantitative/qualitative):
Nevertheless, despite these insignificant results, the fact remains that music has a well-documented positive influence on employee productivity. It has been empirically demonstrated that this increase in productivity is due to the following reactions that employees typically have to music: 1) increased relaxation; 2) reduced nervousness; 3) increased enthusiasm; and 4) decreased fatigue (Oldham et al., 1995; Terry, 1975).
(Magnini & Parker 2008, pg. 57)
Taken from an application article:
Specifically, a hotel should make its social media pages more interesting, appealing, informative, interactive, and consumer centric so the customers can enjoy their social media experiences. The hotel social media pages should also be useful, valuable, and beneficial to customers. Another important factor leading to hotel booking intention is brand cognition. Thus, a hotel should try to enroll more existing customers or even loyal customers as fans on its Facebook page or followers on its Twitter page.
(Leung, Bai, & Stahura, 2013)
Brotherton, B. (1999). Towards a definitive view of the nature of hospitality and hospitality management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 165-173.
Leung, X. Y., Bai, B., & Stahura, K. A. (2013). The marketing effectiveness of social media in the hotel industry: a comparison of Facebook and Twitter. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, (Forthcoming)
Magnini, V. P., & Parker, E. E. (2008). The psychological effects of music: implications for hotel firms. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 53-62