The Middle East

1. Taking into account the sources of Islamic law, what changes did the ulama in Persia undergo during the reign of Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) that would have direct influence on the Iranian Revolution of 1979?2. What is pan-Slavism and how does it relate to the Muslim world?3. What were the Capitulations in the Ottoman Empire? What consequences did they have?4. Discuss briefly the new order (nizam-i-jedid) established in the Ottoman Empire under Selim III, and explain its significance from a military, political, and cultural perspective.5. To what extent did Islamic rulers use education to achieve reform, and what factors that still exist in the Middle East today hindered their progress?Answer the following two questions with at least 500 words each.1. Why is Islamic civilization from 800 to 1500 often called the bridge between the European Dark Ages and the Renaissance? Support your answer with specific examples.2. Describe the main sources of Islamic law and the main features of the legal system that evolved during the early period of Islamic history.Use the following references:A Concise History of the Middle East, 11th ed., by Arthur Goldschmidt Jr. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013).ISBN-13: 978-0-8133-4962-6Islam: The Straight Path, 4th ed., by John L. Esposito (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).ISBN-13: 978-0-19-539600-3