(1) 200 Words
Consider the phenomena of deixis and presupposition. Both phenomena can only be fully accounted for by
appealing to both semantic and pragmatic meaning. Provide characterizations of the semantic and pragmatic
aspects of each phenomenon, providing argumentation for why a particular aspect of meaning is semantic or
pragmatic in nature, and using examples where appropriate.
(2) 500 Words
Briefly describe the difference between the theoretical linguistic approach to reference and the collaborative
approach described in Clark & Wilkes-Gibbs (1986). How do the findings reported in Hanna, Tanenhaus &
Trueswell (2003) bear on the question of whether reference is fundamentally egocentric or collaborative?
Discuss at least one piece of evidence in favour of an egocentric theory, and at least one in favour of a
(3) 300 Words
The experimental studies we have discussed have often prompted a re-evaluation of traditional theoretical
accounts of pragmatic phenomena. Describe one case where an existing theory was challenged by empirical
findings, and resulted in a revised or refined theory.