Why have leading national economies gained a competitive advantage in technological innovation, and to what extent has their success rested on investment in research and development?

A- Discuss Technology theories (Schumpeters, Dickens);
B- Analyse the roles of state investment in R&D, large national corporations, and MNEs on gaining competitive advantage in technology;
C- Clarify the importance of investment in R&D to gain economic success. Challenge the overemphasis on the role of R&D by mentioning some other influential factors in economic success (e.g. HRM, Government) briefly.
Answer this question by providing evidence from one/two industries from 4-5 countries (China, Germany, Japan, US, UK)